What is ECTS ?
The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a tool which enables students to collect credits for learning achieved through higher education. ECTS is a learner-centred system which aims to increase transparency of learning outcomes and learning processes. It aims to facilitate planning, delivery, evaluation, recognition and validation of qualifications and units of learning as well as student mobility. ECTS is widely used in formal higher education and can be applied to other lifelong learning activities.
How did it develop?
ECTS was introduced in 1989, within the framework of Erasmus, now part of the Socrates programme. ECTS is the only credit system which has been successfully tested and used across Europe. ECTS was set up initially for credit transfer.
The system facilitated the recognition of periods of study abroad and thus enhanced the quality and volume of student mobility in Europe. Recently ECTS is developing into an accumulation system to be implemented at institutional, regional, national and European level.
This is one of the key objectives of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999.
What are ECTS credits?
ECTS credits are based on the workload students need in order to achieve expected learning outcomes. Learning outcomes describe what a learner is expected to know, understand and be able to do after successful completion of a process of learning.
They relate to level descriptors in national and European qualifications frameworks.
Workload indicates the time students typically need to complete all learning activities (such as lectures, seminars, projects, practical work, self-study and examinations) required to achieve the expected learning outcomes. 60 ECTS credits are attached to the workload of a
full-time year of formal learning (academic year) and the associated learning outcomes. In most cases, student workload ranges from 1 500 to 1 800 hours for an academic year, whereby one credit corresponds to 25 to 30 hours of work.
What are the key features of ECTS ?
- ECTS is based on the convention that 60 credits measure the workload of a full-time student during one academic year. The student workload of a full-time study programme in Europe amounts in most cases to 36/40 weeks per year and in those cases one credit stands for 25 to 30 working hours. Workload refers to the notional time an average learner might expect to complete the required learning outcomes. - The allocation of ECTS credits is based on the official length of a study programme cycle. The total workload necessary to obtain a first cycle degree lasting officially three or four years is expressed as 180 or 240 credits. - Student workload in ECTS includes the time spent in attending lectures, seminars, independent study, preparation for, and taking of, examinations, etc..
- Credit is also a way of quantifying the outcomes of learning. Learning outcomes are sets of competences, expressing what the student will know, understand or be able to do after completion of a process of learning, short or long. Credits in ECTS can only be obtained after completion of the work required and appropriate assessment of the learning outcomes achieved.
- Credits are allocated to all educational components of a study programme (such as modules, courses, placements, dissertation work, etc.) and reflect the quantity of work each component requires in relation to the total quantity of work necessary to complete a full year of study in the programme considered.
- The performance of the student is documented by a local/national grade. It is good practice to add an ECTS grade, in particular in case of credit transfer. The ECTS grading scale ranks the students on a statistical basis. Therefore, statistical data on student performance is a prerequisite for applying the ECTS grading system. Grades are assigned among students with
a pass grade as follows:
A best 10%
B next 25%
C next 30%
D next 25%
E next 10%
A distinction is made between the grades FX and F that are used for unsuccessful students. FX means: “fail- some more work required to pass” and F means: “fail – considerable further work required”. The inclusion of failure rates in the Transcript of Records is optional.
CALCULATION OF WORKLOAD AND ECTS CREDITS
|Sayısı||Süresi (Saat)||Toplam İş Yükü|
|Course Duration (Exam weeks included : 14x total course hour )||14||3||42|
|Study Time outside the classroom ( Pre-studying for the course , strengthening)||14||4||56|
|Presentation/ Preparation of Seminar||-||-||-|
|Total Workload / 30||4,46|
|Course’s ECTS Credits||4,0|
ECTS credits are based on the workload students need in order to achieve expected learning outcomes.
-30 ECTS / PER TERM
-60 ECTS/ PER ACADEMIC YEAR
WEEKLY COURSE HOUR : 15-20 HOURS
ANNUAL STUDY HOUR : 1500-1800 HOUR/ YEAR
AVARAGE STUDY HOUR PER YEAR : (1500+1800)/2= 1650 HOUR/YEAR
WORKLOAD PER ECTS CREDITS: 1500 or 1800/ 60= 25-30 HOUR